|Year : 2019 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 93-97
Intraoral venous malformation: A case report with review of literature and illustration of the clinical entity
Lidiya Thomas, Zameera Naik, Vasanti Jirge, Anjana Bagewadi
Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences, JNMC Campus, Belgaum, Karnataka, India
|Date of Submission||18-Apr-2018|
|Date of Acceptance||06-Sep-2019|
|Date of Web Publication||13-Nov-2019|
Dr. Lidiya Thomas
KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences, JNMC Campus, Nehru Nagar, Belgaum - 590 010, Karnataka
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Vascular malformations constitute embryonic abnormality of the vascular system due to abnormal development in the blood vessels, lymph vessels, veins, and/or arteries. They comprise approximately 7% of all benign tumors and can lead to serious local and systemic complications. Venous malformations (VMs) constitute a spectrum of vascular malformations with a prevalence rate of 1% and incidence of approximately 2 in 10,000. Even though rare in the oral cavity, when present, they are persistent and progressive in nature and are associated with extensive blood loss. VMs are a diagnostic challenge to clinicians because of its lethal benign nature and are often confused with other vascular malformations. Radiologists play a key role in diagnosing and advising an appropriate treatment for these lesions. Management of VMs includes use of sclerosing agents, laser therapy, and surgical excision. This case report presents a rare case of VM occurring in the right mandibular buccal vestibule in a 17-year-old male patient which was treated using a sclerosing agent, polidocanol 1%.
Keywords: Laser, sclerosing agents, venous malformations
|How to cite this article:|
Thomas L, Naik Z, Jirge V, Bagewadi A. Intraoral venous malformation: A case report with review of literature and illustration of the clinical entity. Int J Oral Health Sci 2019;9:93-7
|How to cite this URL:|
Thomas L, Naik Z, Jirge V, Bagewadi A. Intraoral venous malformation: A case report with review of literature and illustration of the clinical entity. Int J Oral Health Sci [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Jan 23];9:93-7. Available from: http://www.ijohsjournal.org/text.asp?2019/9/2/93/270875
| Introduction|| |
Vascular malformations constitute embryonic abnormality of the vascular system due to abnormal development in the blood vessels, lymph vessels, veins, and/or arteries. They comprise approximately 7% of all benign tumors and can lead to serious local and systemic complications. Venous malformations (VMs) are simple slow-flow vascular anomalies with an abnormal venous network. VMs have a prevalence rate of 1% and the incidence of approximately 2 in 10,000., VMs are not usually present at birth. They manifest either in childhood or adolescence and later persist throughout the life. They grow proportionately as the age of the child advances, with a sudden expansion in adulthood due to Valsalva maneuver, puberty, pregnancy, or traumatic injury., Even though rare in the oral cavity, when present, they are persistent and progressive in nature and are associated with extensive blood loss. VMs are a diagnostic challenge to clinicians because of its lethal benign nature and are often confused with other vascular malformations. As vascular malformations are responsive to various stimuli such as injury and surgical intervention, improper treatment often rapidly stimulates quiescent vascular malformations, making the condition worse. Radiologists play a key role in diagnosing and advising an appropriate treatment for these lesions. Doppler ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging are key imaging methods used to characterize and diagnose VMs. Treatment options include surgery, sclerotherapy, and laser therapy. Here, we report a rare case of VM occurring in the right mandibular buccal vestibule in a 17-year-old male patient which was treated using a sclerosing agent, polidocanol 1%.
| Case Report|| |
A 17-year-old male patient reported to the department of oral medicine and radiology with a chief complaint of painless swelling on the right side of the face for 2–3 months. His past dental, medical, family history, and general examinations were noncontributory. Extraoral examination revealed a dome-shaped swelling of size 2 cm × 1.5 cm on the right lower-third of the face [Figure 1] and was clearly elicited on axial view [Figure 2].
Intraoral examination revealed vestibular obliteration of the right lower buccal vestibule extending from the medial aspect of 44 to distal of 46. The overlying mucosa had a bluish tint. The swelling was soft in consistency, tender, fluctuant, and compressible with no apparent thrills, bruit, or pus discharge or bleeding [Figure 3]. There was no caries, mobility, and periodontal pocket associated with premolars and molar. Based on the clinical findings, a provisional diagnosis of mucocele and differential diagnosis of vascular malformation, lipoma, and traumatic neuroma were considered.
Diagnostic digital intraoral periapical radiograph [Figure 4] and OPG [Figure 5] revealed no bony involvement in the region of 44–46 and thus ultrasonography (USG) was advised for the patient. USG of the region was performed using Philips L 12-5 MHz 50 mm intraoral linear transducer. USG showed a soft-tissue lesion of size 2.5 cm × 1.1 cm along the right side close to the anterior mandibular margin. It had multiple cystic spaces with predominantly venous flow pattern without any arterial communication [Figure 6].
|Figure 4: Diagnostic digital intraoral periapical radiograph showing no periapical pathology or bony changes|
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|Figure 6: Multiple cystic spaces in ultrasonography image of the swelling|
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On US imaging, mucocele appears as a hypoechoic lesion without internal vascularity, whereas lipomas appear typically ellipsoid, hyperechoic without internal vascularity. The typical US appearance of traumatic neuroma is of a well-defined minimally vascular lesion, hypoechoic to surrounding subcutaneous tissue. Vascular malformations are subcategorized according to their flow dynamics as low-flow malformations (venous, VMs) and high-flow malformations (arteriovenous malformations). Any malformation with an arterial component in USG is considered high flow, while those without an arterial component are considered low flow. Thus, a probable diagnosis of VM was considered.
The present case was treated by injecting a sclerosing agent, polidocanol 1%. The injections were repeated every week, up to five sessions. After 2 months postsclerotherapy, the swelling was completely disappeared [Figure 7].
| Discussion|| |
VMs are part of a spectrum of vascular malformations commonly found in adults. VM is defined as a simple malformation with slow flow and an abnormal venous network. A classification scheme for vascular anomalies based on cellular features, flow characteristics, and clinical behavior was updated during the 2014 meeting of the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies [Figure 8].
The present case was managed by injecting a sclerosing agent, polidocanol 1%. Polidocanol is a popular surfactant agent that is relatively effective, painless, and incites minimal endothelial damage. The exact mechanism by which polidocanol acts as an in vivo sclerosant is by denudation of the endothelial cell from the internal elastic lamina of the vascular wall. Platelet aggregation on the denuded surface then embolizes the vessel from the periphery to the center.,, Polidocanol injection, 0.2 ml, was given along the circumference of the swelling with tuberculin syringe. Postsclerotherapy, antibiotics and analgesics were given along with ice-pack application. The injections were repeated every week, up to five sessions. After 2 months postsclerotherapy, the swelling was completely disappeared. Reversible cardiac arrest has been reported in cases where polidocanol was used to treat VM of legs. Hence, care should be taken when using in cardiac patients.
| Review of Literature|| |
VMs are clinically characterized as a soft, compressible, nonpulsatile tissue mass. The overlying skin usually has a bluish tint. The common sites affected are the head and neck (40% of cases), extremities (40%), and trunk (20%). Intraoral VMs can bleed, distort dentition, cause speech problems, and obstruct the upper airway and pharynx. Thrombosis (40%) and pain are also commonly seen in VMs.
A coagulation profile should be performed for any patient with an extensive VM, especially if there is a history of easy bruising or bleeding. Stagnation within a VM can cause localized intravascular coagulopathy.
Venous anomalies usually occur sporadically, but families with dominant inheritance have been identified. In these cases, mutation in chromosome 9p21 has been established. This mutation causes ligand-independent activation of an endothelial cell-specific receptor tyrosine kinase. Consequently, venous anomalies could be caused by gene mutations that regulate angiogenesis.
VMs can be diagnosed by various imaging modalities such as Doppler US, computed tomography, MRI, and direct phlebography. Interventional radiologic techniques also play an important role in the diagnosis of VMs. Absence of flow or low-velocity venous flow is observed at Doppler US. MRI is very useful in assessing the extension of VMs. These lesions are usually hypointense on T1-weighted images and markedly hyperintense on T2-weighted images. Direct phlebography is useful in confirming the diagnosis and excluding other soft-tissue tumors.
Lower-extremity VMs should first be treated with elastic stockings. Low doses of aspirin seem to minimize phlebothromboses. Preoperative control of intravascular coagulopathy with heparin should be considered before the resection of large VMs.
In cases involving very superficial cutaneous or oromucosal lesions, sclerotherapy is preferred. Sclerotherapy should be performed under fluoroscopic control by a skilled interventional radiologist. The amount of sclerosing agent required is evaluated with percutaneous phlebography. It is important to avoid spillage of the drainage veins with the sclerosing agent. A tourniquet or manual compression is useful in minimizing passage of the sclerosing agent into the systemic circulation. The main complications of sclerotherapy are cutaneous necrosis and neural toxicity. Systemic complications are rare and are related to the passage of sclerosing agent into the systemic circulation. These include hemolysis with potential renal toxicity and cardiac arrest. Sclerotherapy induces an inflammatory reaction that will worsen the symptoms during the week following intervention. Analgesics and anti-inflammatory agents (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents or corticosteroids) must be given to minimize the symptoms. Venous anomalies have a propensity for recanalization and recurrence.
Surgery is generally contemplated after sclerotherapy when treatment is incomplete or when an aesthetic prejudice requires correction.
Laser therapy can be useful in very superficial forms of VMs and in oromucosal lesions. Photocoagulation can be performed with argon, yellow dye, or a neodymium yttrium aluminum garnet laser. For deeper lesions, laser probes can be inserted subcutaneously. Satisfactory results with minimal scarring have been reported, but recurrences and repeated treatments are common.
| Conclusion|| |
VMs are relatively challenging to diagnose. However, radiologists play a key role in diagnosing and avoiding inappropriate treatment of these lesions. Conservative treatment is recommended in most cases. In cases of functional impairment or significant esthetic prejudice, sclerotherapy with or without surgery is useful even if recurrences are frequent.
Declaration of patient consent
The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to b'e reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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