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  Most popular articles (Since October 08, 2013)

 
 
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CASE REPORTS
Asymptomatic intermittent swelling on the right side of the face
Poornima Rangaiah, Ashok Lingappa, Rajeshwari Gangappa Annigeri, Kirthi Kumar Rai
January-June 2013, 3(1):51-56
DOI:10.4103/2231-6027.122124  
Vascular malformations (VM) are errors of vascular morphogenesis present at lower incidence accounts approximately 7% of all benign tumors, about 1/3 rd of all VMs occur in the head and neck region, more than 50%. Arteriovenous malformations are present in the head and neck region. Clinicians who diagnose and treat oral conditions should be aware of these lesions and their impact on routine procedures. Proper recognition and therapeutic intervention can help avoid serious complications and potentially tragic outcomes.
  9,695 228 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Current concepts and guidelines in chin graft harvesting: A literature review
Ankit Jivan Desai, Raison Thomas, AB Tarun Kumar, DS Mehta
January-June 2013, 3(1):16-25
DOI:10.4103/2231-6027.122094  
After tooth loss, alveolar ridge resorption is a common phenomenon, which alters the size and shape of the host bone available for the dental implant placement. In the era of prosthetic driven implant dentistry, the final prosthesis type and design dictates the number, size and the ideal implant position. In clinical practice, though patients often demand osseointegrated implants to replace their missing teeth; the deficiency of bone volume is the primary reason for avoiding such treatment options. The solution to such situations lies in the re-establishment of the ridge height consistent with prosthetic design and with suitable load-bearing lamellar bone for implant placement and long-term stability. Despite recent advances in bone grafts and bone-substitute technology, the use of autogenous bone grafts continues to represent the "gold standard" in implant site reconstructive surgery. The mandibular symphysis (chin bone in interforaminal region) is a favorable donor site as it has an excellent risk-benefit ratio. Several reconstruction procedures by using chin graft have been proposed to increase alveolar bone volume both vertically and laterally to prepare the ridge for a correct placement of oral implants. This article reviews the various aspects of chin grafts, wherein the regional surgical anatomy, various incision designs, surgical protocols for harvesting and the possible clinical and esthetic complications of chin grafts have been discussed.
  7,887 873 1
Shade selection
RS Basavanna, Chitra Gohil, Vasundhara Shivanna
January-June 2013, 3(1):26-31
DOI:10.4103/2231-6027.122097  
Recent advances in color matching have been driven by the market demand for high-quality esthetic restorations. Improved shade guides, availability of shade-taking devices and research in the area of human color vision have improved the potential of clinicians to achieve excellent color-matched restorations. A thorough understanding of appearance attributes of natural teeth is required along with these new tools to maximize shade-matching results.
  4,154 475 -
CASE REPORTS
Four and two tooth supported - Conventional over denture: Two case reports
Veena S Prakash, G Shivaprakash, Samrat Hegde, Nagarajappa
January-June 2013, 3(1):61-64
DOI:10.4103/2231-6027.122134  
The mastication, phonation and esthetics: The trident factors are very important and should be given due consideration when any dental procedure is initiated to achieve the successful outcome of treatment. The prosthetic management of edentulous patient has long been a major challenge for dentistry. For well over a century, complete maxillary and mandibular denture have been the traditional standard of care. However, most of the patients report significantly more problems adapting to their mandibular denture due to a lack of comfort (e.g., they suffer from an increase in pain and soreness), retention, stability and inability to chew and eat. Recent scientific studies carried out over the past decade have determined that the benefits of a mandibular two implant over denture/coping retained are sufficient to propose the two implant over denture - rather than conventional denture - as the first treatment option. This in the prosthodontics literature has led to shift in therapeutic philosophy regarding restoration of the edentulous patient. This article presents four and two tooth supported conventional over denture - two case reports.
  3,810 733 1
Dentin dysplasia type I: A rare case report
Sujata Mohan Byahatti
January-June 2013, 3(1):57-60
DOI:10.4103/2231-6027.122128  
Dentin dysplasia (DD) type I is an inherited autosomal dominant genetic defect affecting the dentin formation. Here, the teeth are characterized by normal appearing crowns, with absence or severe restriction of root formation, obliterated pulp chambers and periapical radiolucencies without an obvious cause. Clinically, the teeth can be poorly aligned, drifting and mobile and can prematurely exfoliate due to abnormal root formation. This condition is rarely encountered where little is known about the specific treatment of this disorder and management of patients with DD. This report documents one such rarity of DD type I in a 16-year-old female and the clinical and radiographical findings of this condition.
  4,110 214 -
The diverse roles of soft-tissue grafts in creating perioesthetics
Jaisika Rajpal, Aakash Arora, Jagriti Gupta, Ruchika Prasad
January-June 2013, 3(1):42-50
DOI:10.4103/2231-6027.122117  
As patients become increasingly aware of the esthetic potential through cosmetic dentistry, there is an increasing demand for smile makeovers with perioplastic surgeries. When gum tissue recedes due to periodontal disease, it pulls away from the teeth. Periodontal plastic surgery procedures can restore some coverage and dramatically improve a person's smile. Soft-tissue grafts and other root coverage procedures cover exposed roots and restore healthy gum tissue. This will reduce further bone loss and recession, make the tooth less sensitive, protect the root from root cavities and look more natural when you smile. In this paper, the scope of periodontal plastic surgery with the use of soft-tissue autografts has been outlined to aid the dental team in the proper diagnosis and treatment of the esthetic dental case.
  3,566 249 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Maxillary molar with dens evaginatus and multiple cusps: Report of a rare case and literature review
NB Nagaveni, KV Umashankara
July-December 2013, 3(2):92-97
DOI:10.4103/2231-6027.135979  
Human teeth may show variations and changes in morphological structures. Such changes may be found on the crown either in the form of anomalous cusps or in an increased number of roots, which in some instances is associated with an anomalous cusp. Accessory or supernumerary cusps are common variations of tooth morphology that are occasionally encountered clinically. The most commonly reported accessory cusps are cusp of Carabelli of the molars, talons cusps of the incisors and Leong's tubercle of premolar. Herewith, we present a case of maxillary third molar associated with six supernumerary cusps along with a dens evaginatus that is a rarely reported dental variation in the literature. The article also discusses the need for continuous dental surveillance of this rare anomaly with a review of the literature.
  3,275 209 -
Oral piercing: Style statement or a state of disharmony?
Neelam Khalia, Gayathri Gunjiganur Vemanaradhya, Dhoom Singh Mehta
July-December 2013, 3(2):84-91
DOI:10.4103/2231-6027.135978  
Oral piercing is a practice that was done even in the before Christ era, but the designs and purposes are changing with time. These days, it is mainly used as a style statement and for religious reasons. Although it aids in marking the identity of a person, but at the same time if not done with precision, then it can lead to various disastrous effects as well. This review highlights the various facets of oral piercing, including its history, designs, procedure, complications, precautions to be taken for a patient bearing oral piercing jewelry and the current status.
  3,217 196 -
CASE REPORTS
Telescopic denture a treatment modalitity of preventive prosthodontics
Laxman Singh Kaira, Rakesh Mishra
July-December 2013, 3(2):121-124
DOI:10.4103/2231-6027.135991  
"It is more important to preserve what already exists than to replace what is missing," as stated by M.M. Devan has never been challenged or disapproved. In situations with few remaining natural teeth, prosthodontists are posed with a dilemma for the treatment options. In such cases, overdenture therapy has been proven to be advantageous. Bearing in mind the philosophy of preventive prosthodontics, overdenture therapy has a long-term advantage by preserving the proprioception and thereby residual alveolar ridge. This clinical report describes the prosthodontic rehabilitation a patient with few remaining mandibular natural teeth by telescopic mandibular overdenture for added advantages like better retention, stability, support and psychological benefits of the patient.
  2,586 446 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
A review of tooth regeneration
Rucha Kashyap, ND Shashikiran
January-June 2013, 3(1):32-36
DOI:10.4103/2231-6027.122101  
Regeneration of dental tissue is one of the highly demanding areas, in which lot of research is going on. Trauma, genetic disorders and malformations have created the need for functional, mechanical and esthetic replacement of missing teeth. Current methods of tooth replacement including dental implants, tooth transplantation and Prosthodontics are not considered permanent and significant complications exist with these methods. Ideally, the altered signaling cascade that interrupts tooth development could be treated, or an autogenous tooth replacement developed. This review discusses, so as to better understand multiple approaches and procedures of tooth regeneration.
  2,116 297 -
CASE REPORTS
Fabrication of bar-retained tooth-supported mandibular overdenture
Ruchika Mishra, Amit Shivrayan, Sonal Jain, Siddharth Mehta
January-June 2014, 4(1):37-41
DOI:10.4103/2231-6027.151624  
The problem of stability and retention of conventional mandibular complete dentures is far from a solution that is universally satisfactory. However, the use of overdenture therapy preserves the sensation of proprioception, preserves the edentulous ridge, maintains the border seal and provides the patient with good speaking ability and chewing efficiency. The retention and stability of such prosthesis is enhanced greatly in bar-supported overdentures. This case report depicts the step by step procedure for the fabrication of a canine splint bar for a bar and clip-retained mandibular overdenture that opposes a conventional complete maxillary denture. The bar was fabricated from readily available castable bar system and female clips were attached by an indirect technique. The mode of retention was primarily through frictional resistance. It is a relatively simple and easy technique, overcoming the limitations of the direct technique for clip attachment.
  2,061 309 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate in dentistry: An update
GK Divyapriya, Puja C Yavagal, DJ Veeresh
January-June 2016, 6(1):18-25
DOI:10.4103/2231-6027.186660  
Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP), milk derivative helps in remineralization of the carious lesion by replenishing lost minerals like calcium, phosphate ions into the tooth structure. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have proven that CPP-ACP to be useful in the treatment of white spot lesions, early childhood caries, dental erosion, root caries, and dentin hypersensitivity. CPP-ACP is delivered in the form of oral hygiene products such as chewing gum, tooth cream, and even incorporated in dental restorative materials also.
  2,038 317 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparative evaluation of Morinda citrifolia with chlorhexidine as antimicrobial endodontic irrigants and their effect on micro-hardness of root canal dentin: An in vitro study
AR Prabhakar, Priyanka Basavraj, N Basappa
January-June 2013, 3(1):5-9
DOI:10.4103/2231-6027.122086  
Objectives: The current study was intended to compare and to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial efficacy of Morinda citrifolia juice (MCJ) with chlorhexidine (CHX) as endodontic irrigants and their effect on micro-hardness of root canal dentin. Methodology: The study was divided into two parts. Part I for antibacterial testing consisted of preparing 60 dentin blocks of 4 mm height. All the dentin blocks were infected with Enterococcus fecalis for a period of 21 days. The experimental groups were Group I: 0.2% CHX; Group II: 6% MCJ; Group III: 6% MCJ + 0.2% CHX; Group IV: Saline. After 28 days of medication with the irrigants, the dentin shavings from root canal dentin was harvested and colony forming units counted. Part II for micro-hardness testing consisted of preparing 32 root halves and mounting them on blocks of acrylic resin. 8 samples per group were randomly divided into the experimental groups. The samples were then medicated with the irrigants for a period of 15 min and micro-hardness values were recorded. Results: Data obtained was analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-test and Student's paired t-test. Part I: Group I showed highest antibacterial activity followed by Group III with Group II taking the third place and were statistically significant (P < 0.001). Part II: None of the groups showed any effect on micro-hardness of root canal dentin, which was not statistically significant (P > 0.4). Conclusion: Nearly 0.2% of CHX showed the highest antimicrobial activity even after 28 days and 6% of MCJ also showed antibacterial activity, but to a lesser degree than CHX. None of the irrigants tested had any effect on the micro-hardness of root canal dentin.
  1,983 298 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Microabscess: Revisited
K Shyamala, HC Girish, Sanjay Murgod, Vaidhehi N Nayak
July-December 2014, 4(2):81-83
DOI:10.4103/2231-6027.165098  
Inflammation is the initial response of the host to a diverse array of biological stressors including bacterial infection, burns, trauma, and invasive surgery. Most inflammatory reactions begin as a suppurative or purulent exudation process when the first line of cellular defense, the neutrophils, accumulate in the area which may lead to the formation of microabscesses. This article on microabscess is an effort in providing information available about microabscess from various sources. The matter has been extracted from internet sources with the help of Google search, dictionaries, and articles from the online journals, and textbooks. In this paper, we have discussed the mechanism behind the formation, regression of microabscess and the different types of microabscesses that have appeared in the literature related to different disease processes.
  1,943 155 -
PRESIDENTS MESSAGE
President's Message
K Sadashiva Shetty
July-December 2015, 5(2):71-71
DOI:10.4103/2231-6027.178494  
  745 1,326 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Knowledge of early childhood caries among anganwadi workers in davangere city, India
Srinidhi Palagatti Basavaraj, Sakeenabi Basha, Pavagouda Gopalakrishna Naveen Kumar, Prashant Goudar Manjunath, Sushanth Veerabhadraiah Hirekalmath, Mohammad Imranulla
July-December 2013, 3(2):75-78
DOI:10.4103/2231-6027.135976  
Aim: An Anganwadi worker (AW) can be a vital link in the health care delivery system as she provides a package of services to mothers and children. Oral health knowledge among these workers is an integral component of preventing early childhood caries (ECC). The present study aimed to assess the existing knowledge of early childhood oral health-related factors among AWs. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among AWs in Davangere city, India. The study involved face-to-face interviews and recording the response to a pretested 12-item questionnaire. Of the 80 participants, 74 participants responded to the questionnaire. Results: Of the 74 respondents, 34.3% agreed that a mother's diet during pregnancy affects the development of the infant's teeth, while 47.6% disagreed. Sixty-four percent of the participants agreed that problem with babies' teeth affect the adult teeth, and 85% of the participants agreed that breastfeeding is important for the health of the child's teeth. Ninety-two percent of the participants agreed that untreated tooth decay affects the general health of the child, and 47.3% agreed that bacteria that cause decay can spread from mother to child. Conclusion: Our study concluded that AWs showed some degree of knowledge about certain aspects of ECC. The knowledge however appeared to be inconsistent. We recommend that AWs need to be educated by conducting periodic oral health education programs, which will increase their awareness about ECC.
  1,778 288 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Application of cone beam imaging in dentistry: A mini review
Santosh Doddamani, Sunitha N Shamnur, Jacqueline Tan Wun Lin
January-June 2014, 4(1):23-32
DOI:10.4103/2231-6027.151618  
Cone beam volumetric imaging has many advantages over simple panoramic film and digital images, including enabling accurate visualization of head and neck structures and reducing X-ray doses. It has been rapidly adopted and is becoming the "standard of care" for several applications, and is being preferred for others.
  1,756 286 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Present scenario of implant recycling: Where are we heading to?
GV Gayathri, Neelam Khalia, Tarun AB Kumar, Dhoom Singh Mehta
January-June 2013, 3(1):37-41
DOI:10.4103/2231-6027.122106  
Implant is an object or material inserted or grafted into the body for experimental, diagnostic, therapeutic or prosthetic purposes. However, there is a total uncertainty and ambiguity about the fate of these precious metal implants after the death of a person. They are either disposed off, buried, stored or sent to landfills, which is not only a financial loss but it is also detrimental to the environment in the long run. To avoid such problems, the idea of implant recycling has come as a boon. In addition, the idea of using the income obtained from this process for charity makes this program as a "cause with noble purpose." The practical possibility of this humanitarian program requires a teamwork involving Government, crematory authorities, family members, dentists, authorities of recycling company etc. Though the implant recycling is already in practice in few developed countries, its establishment in developing countries requires a lot of support and encouragement from all the concerned parties. Despite its versatile good will, the procedure has not yet recieved sufficient attention in the scientific literature. Aim of this article is to highlight the necessity of implant recycling, its influence on health field, society and our precious environment along with the description of each participant's suggestive role and pros and cons of the process are in brief.
  1,852 186 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Dental consequences of mouth breathing in the pediatric age group
Seema Malhotra, Vinay Gupta, Ramesh Kumar Pandey, Sunil Kumar Singh, Amit Nagar
July-December 2013, 3(2):79-83
DOI:10.4103/2231-6027.135977  
Background: The presence of mouth breathing (MB) in pediatric patients is a relatively common fact and may result in a series of changes characteristic of occlusal features. In the presence of unbalanced muscular activity, dental inter-arch relationship is the important parameter to understand the patient's occlusion. Therefore, it is important to assess the occurrence of occlusal disorders among MB children. Aim: The present study is undertaken to verify the dental occlusal characteristics with extent of MB and nasal breathing in a pediatric patient. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed to assess the association of changed mode of respiration with occlusal variables from dental cast. Ninety-two subjects, of whom 40 were mouth breathers and 52 were nasal breathers, of 7-11 years of age were submitted to clinical examination and dental cast analysis. Results: Mouth breathers demonstrated considerable increase in palatal height and increased overjet, and statistically significant narrowing of the upper arch at the level of the molar. Conclusion: Changed mode of respiration during critical growth periods in children has a higher tendency for increased palatal height and overjet, reduced overbite and maxillary intermolar width.
  1,776 250 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Application of herbal products in management of periodontal diseases: A mini review
Rucha Shah, GV Gayathri, Dhoom Singh Mehta
January-June 2015, 5(1):38-44
DOI:10.4103/2231-6027.171166  
Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the supporting structures of teeth and may lead to bleeding gums, tooth mobility, and eventually tooth loss. With the limited effectiveness of current forms of mechanical therapy in the management of periodontal diseases, there has been a shift in focus on to alternative therapies. One such area where maximum research has been going on is phytotherapy. Several studies now focus on the efficacies of herbal extracts on various important periodontal pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia. Furthermore, recent studies have explored the benefits of using plant-based products on various periodontal clinical parameters such as gingival inflammation, gingival bleeding, etc. The aim of this review to focus on potential, of pros and cons of the several plants/extracts that have been used in vitro or in vivo for management of periodontal diseases and also to highlight the direction of future research to improve their efficacy.
  1,666 291 -
CASE REPORTS
Peripheral ossifying fibroma
Adhiraj Roy, S Shivaprasad, L Ashok
July-December 2013, 3(2):101-104
DOI:10.4103/2231-6027.135986  
Many types of localized reactive lesions may occur on the gingiva, including focal fibrous hyperplasia, pyogenic granuloma, peripheral giant cell granuloma and peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF). POF is a gingival growth, usually arising from interdental papilla. Other terms used to describe this lesion include peripheral cementifying fibroma, peripheral fibroma with cementogenesis, peripheral fibroma with osteogenesis, peripheral fibroma with calcification, calcified or ossified fibrous epulis and calcified fibroblastic granuloma. POF usually occurs at a mean age of 30 years and as the age advances incidence reduces. Here in this article, we present a case report of POF occurring in a 55-year-old female patient.
  1,692 174 1
Palatal gingival recession treated with connective tissue graft
Deepa Dhruvakumar, Priyanka Srivastava
July-December 2013, 3(2):98-100
DOI:10.4103/2231-6027.135980  
Labial and buccal gingival recession is a common finding in the adult population that occurs due to various etiologies. When present, it can lead to unaesthetic appearance and also cause hypersensitivity. However, very limited literature is available quoting the incidence of palatal gingival recessions and, sometimes, it can go unnoticed during routine clinical examinations. These too can cause sensitivity and also pose a technical challenge in surgical correction due to poor accessibility and visibility when present. Herein, we report a case of palatal gingival recession treated successfully by connective tissue graft.
  1,641 190 -
CASE SERIES
Palatal pedicle flap-varied applications
AB Tarun Kumar, PS Divya Gayatri, MG Triveni, DS Mehta
July-December 2015, 5(2):106-112
DOI:10.4103/2231-6027.178505  
Implant restorations, a boon to dentistry, often suffer from ridge and soft tissue deficiencies because of the postextraction tissue remodeling. This hindrance could be overcome through soft and hard tissue augmentation as future implant site development. A good pink carpet is one of the prerequisite for esthetics around implant restoration, which could be achieved adequately through hard and soft tissue grafting procedures. In this regard, many techniques have been advocated, wherein the pedicle grafts gained popularity owing to the ability to maintain intact vascularity. Palatal tissue is desirable graft of choice for its thick biotype. Thus a combination of palatal tissue with pedicle grafts are said to be novel in this application. In this article, we discussed the applications of different palatal pedicle grafts along with elaborating their varied applications in three patients.
  1,492 195 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Assessment of the clinical performance of zirconia infused glass ionomer cement: An in vivo study
AR Prabhakar, Priyanka L Kalimireddy, Chandrashekar Yavagal, S Sugandhan
July-December 2015, 5(2):74-79
DOI:10.4103/2231-6027.178501  
Aim: To assess the clinical performance of zirconia (ZrO2) infused glass ionomer cement (GIC) compared to conventional GIC. Study Design: Experimental, in vivo, intergroup split-mouth study. Methods: Cavities were prepared on bilateral teeth and restored with Conventional GIC on one side and ZrO2infused glass ionomer on the other. The two sides were compared with regards to their clinical performance and color stability. Results: Statistically significant differences were found with respect to surface texture and color match between ZrO2infused GIC and conventional GIC. Statistics: Results were analyzed using Friedman test and Wilcoxon test. Conclusions: ZrO2infused GIC showed better color stability but conventional GIC was much better as far as color match, surface texture, and marginal adaptation were concerned.
  1,405 224 -
CASE REPORTS
Single-visit endodontic management of iatrogenic supracrestal root perforation associated with dual sinus using MTA and collagen
Isha Narang, Navin Mishra, Konark Singh
July-December 2013, 3(2):105-108
DOI:10.4103/2231-6027.135987  
Iatrogenic perforation is usually an undesired complication that results in an artificial communication between the root canal system to the supporting tissues of the teeth or to the oral cavity. It can occur during preparation of endodontic access cavities and exploration of calcified canal orifices. Successful treatment depends on the proper diagnosis and immediate sealing of the perforation site to eliminate the risk of infection. On the basis of the physical and biologic properties, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has shown superior sealing ability and is suitable for closing the perforation site. The purpose of this case report is to describe the successful orthograde retreatment of iatrogenically perforated lower central incisor associated with dual sinuses. The perforation site was cleaned with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and 0.9% normal saline solution and sealed with MTA with an internal collagen matrix. Finally, the tooth was endodontically treated and coronally restored with composite resin. After 6 and 12 months of follow-up, the absence of periradicular radiolucent lesion, disappearance of dual sinus, pain and swelling indicated a successful outcome of non-surgical sealing of the perforation.
  1,424 143 -
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