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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 86-91

A review of oral and maxillofacial biopsies from a new academic health facility in remote Northwestern Nigeria

1 Department of Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria
2 Department of Histopathology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Adebayo Aremu Ibikunle
Department of Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_25_18

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Background: Histological diagnosis is invaluable in charting the overall management of human pathologies. Knowledge of the general trend of histological diagnosis in a population may impact the clinician's practice as well as public health policy formulation. There is a paucity of literature on biopsy-driven epidemiology of oral and maxillofacial lesions, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Objective: This study aims to determine the pattern of biopsied oral and maxillofacial lesions at a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Materials and Methods: A 5-year retrospective review of the histological diagnoses of patients who had biopsies of oral and/or maxillofacial lesions done at our teaching hospital was done. Biopsy reports obtained within the study period were retrieved and analyzed. Analysis was performed using the IBM SPSS statistics for windows version 20 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY) software. Results: Three hundred and sixteen biopsy reports were included in this review. A slight male preponderance was observed, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:0.96. The age ranged from 6 months to 90 years (mean ± standard deviation, 33.3 ± 19.9). The posterior mandible was the most commonly affected site 13.9% (44). Most of the lesions were neoplastic 70.9% (224) with a slight majority being malignant. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was the most frequently diagnosed malignancy 11.7% (37). Most nonneoplastic lesions were inflammatory/infectious 52.8% (47). Conclusion: Nearly equal gender prevalence for oral and maxillofacial biopsies was observed. In contrast to several studies, malignancies were more frequently diagnosed than benign neoplasms. The high incidence of SCC suggests the need for population interventions targeted at screening and early diagnosis.

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