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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-June 2020
Volume 10 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-63

Online since Thursday, July 16, 2020

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PRESIDENTS MESSAGE  

President's Message p. 1
AR Prabhakar
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_13_20  
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SECRETARYS MESSAGE Top

Secretary's Message p. 2
IM Ali
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_16_20  
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GUEST EDITORIAL Top

Competency-based education for health professionals; demystifying the challenge p. 3
Vardendra Kulkarni
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_10_20  
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EDITORIAL Top

Editorial p. 5
C Shubha
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_17_20  
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

A Review on silver nanoparticles-The powerful nanoweapon against oral pathogens p. 6
Suma Bindu Adapa
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_38_19  
In the human oral cavity, complex microbe-host relationships occurs. Dental disease is prevalent in about 89% of the Indian population, of which 72% are residing in the rural areas whose economic values are low to afford the treatment. Indian greeneries are the chief and economical source of medicinal plants and plant products. In recent years, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has gained much interest from researchers. As a wide range of metabolites are present in the plant products/extracts, nanoparticles produced by plants are more stable, and the rate of synthesis is faster in comparison to microorganisms. Silver in the form of various compounds have been used in Ayurveda to treat several bacterial infections since time immemorial. The present review explores the huge plant diversity to be utilized for the synthesis of AgNPs and describes the antimicrobial activities of AgNPs against the oral and nonoral microflora.
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Prolonged neonatal intubation: Prosthodontics beyond dentistry p. 13
Sagar Sachdeva, Haitham Hesham Kamel, Sunitha Shamnur, Poonam Khinnavar, DB Nandeeshwa
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_28_19  
Neonates with respiratory distress, inadequate gag reflex, poor sucking, and swallowing commonly require intubation as a routine treatment modality in the neonatal intensive care unit. It can be done by the nasal or oral route. Although nasotracheal intubation reduces the movement of the tube, it has some serious repercussions such as airway obstruction and possible hypoxia, leading to labored breathing, occlusion of the nasal aperture during a crucial period of development, nasal infections, and hypertrophy of the nasal lining. Hence, oral route is preferred over the nasal route as the oral mucosa is less susceptible to infection. However, an infant with an orotracheal tube is at risk for complications such as accidental extubation, damage to the maxillary alveolar ridge, development of a cleft palate, defective dentition, tracheal mucosal damage, subglottic stenosis, and laryngeal damage. Therefore, in an effort to reduce these complications, an appropriate recognition and dental intervention is required by the prosthodontist who by conferring with the prescribing physician could device a customized intraoral appliance for the neonate on prolonged intubation. Various intraoral appliances are being used to stabilize the tubes for infants who require prolonged intubation. For the present review, the database from various digital platforms was searched for studies published on prolonged neonatal intubation. The palatal appliances effectively stabilize the orotracheal and orogastric intubation tubes and prevent the associated complications. Thus, this early prosthodontic treatment for neonates requiring prolonged intubation further expands the scope of prosthetic dentistry to newer horizons in patient care and management.
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Paget's disease of bone with special reference to dentistry: An insight p. 19
Sonia Gupta, Manveen Kaur Jawanda
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_53_14  
Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is a relatively common disorder of uncertain etiology. It is characterized by abnormal resorption and apposition of osseous tissue in one or more bones of the skeleton. Although many patients are asymptomatic, a variety of symptoms and complications may occur. Jaw involvement is seen in approximately 17% of cases, and usually, it is the maxilla that is involved. PDB begins with a period of increased osteoclastic activity and bone resorption, followed by increased osteoblast production of woven bone that is poorly mineralized. In the final phase of the disease process, dense cortical and trabecular bone deposition predominates, but the bone is sclerotic and poorly organized and lacks the structural integrity and strength of normal bone. This article discusses the prevalence, etiology, clinical features, radiography, histopathology, biochemistry, oral and dental manifestations, complications, and the treatment of PDB.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and practices toward orofacial injuries among students engaged in sports from Davangere city: A cross sectional survey p. 26
DJ Veeresh, Apoorva Shukla, Abhirami Srikanth, Anshul Jain, Bishakha Lalani, Carol Winnie Lobo
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_33_19  
Context: Traumatic dental injury (TDI) is a common occurrence during sports practice and training sessions which can be determined by the intensity and frequency of the contact. To prevent sport-related oral and facial injuries, the sports personnel should have adequate knowledge regarding occurrence, severity, and prevention of trauma. Studies with regard to awareness about orofacial injuries among sports personnel in Davangere city were not found. Aim: The aim is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices toward orofacial injuries among students of sports academy in Davangere city. Settings and Design: Sports academy and Hostel, Davangere; cross-sectional survey. Subjects and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among 305 sports students in sports academy in Davangere city. A twenty items self-designed structured, close-ended questionnaire was administered to the participants. Statistical Analysis Used: Results were generated in terms of frequencies and percentages using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Software 20 version IBM 20. Results: Out of 305 students, majority of the students were males. Forty-four percent of the participants had suffered from injuries to the face while playing sports. The most common type of injury was the fracture of a part of the tooth (51.4%). Falling during sports was the major cause of injury (48.81). Many of the participants were unaware of the fact about replantation of an avulsed tooth. Only 32.1% of the participants had used mouth guards. Seventy-two percent have never interacted with medical or dental experts regarding safety measures for the face and mouth during the sport activities. Conclusions: The study participant's knowledge was inadequate; attitude was moderate and poor practice toward prevention and management for orofacial injuries. Hence, they should be sensitized to the knowledge of sports-related injuries and its prevention and treatment.
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To assess the efficacy of Bacillus clausii UBB-07 2 Billion spores on gingivitis: A randomized control trial p. 32
MR Vivekananda, C Vasthavi, MB Harsha, D Shivaparasad, S Ravindra
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_12_19  
Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of probiotic Bacillus clausii UBBC-07 2 Billion spores alone and in combination with scaling in a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of volunteers with chronic generalized gingivitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty otherwise systemically healthy, chronic generalized gingivitis subjects (both males and females, aged between 18 and 40 years) were included. Selected subjects were randomly divided into two groups. The study period was 7 days. “Split-mouth” design was used for scaling, which was performed on day 0; two quadrants (either right or left) were treated with scaling whereas the remaining two quadrants were left untreated. Participants in the test group received probiotics, B. clausii UBB-07-2 Billion spores as mouth rinse twice daily for 7 days and in the control group received placebo rinse twice daily for 7 days. Further treatment for the subjects was carried out after 7 days. Statistical analysis was done for comparisons of clinical parameters (plaque index [PI], gingival index [GI], and sulcus bleeding index [SBI]). A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Assessments were made on day 0 before scaling treatment, on day 0 before administration of the mouth rinse, and on day 7. Results: At day 7, the PI, GI, and SBI were significantly reduced by all treatment modalities. When ranked, the amount of PI, GI, and SBI reduction by the different treatments were scaling with probiotics, probiotics, scaling with placebo, placebo all differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: The present randomized double-blind controlled trial confirms the plaque inhibition effects of B. clausii UBB-07-2 Billion spores probiotics. B. clausii UBB-07-2 Billion spores probiotic can be recommended alone and in combination with scaling and also during the maintenance phase of periodontal treatment.
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Methodology in Wistar rats periodontitis induction: A modified ligation technique with injection of bacteria p. 36
Suryono Suryono, Felia Resha Wulandari, Hefy Andini, Jeanette Widjaja, Trisna Dwisetyo Nugraheni
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_44_19  
Introduction: Periodontitis is an inflammation affecting the supporting tissue of the teeth. It is characterized by periodontal ligament destruction and progressive alveolar bone loss. Periodontitis is often induced in laboratory animal models, such as Wistar rats used for experimental models. This study was conducted to develop a reproducible technique for induction of periodontitis in the mandible of Wistar rats using a modified ligation technique with an additional injection of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Context: Periodontitis is an inflammation affecting the supporting tissue of the teeth. It is characterized by periodontal ligament destruction and progressive alveolar bone loss. Aims: The aim of this study was to develop a reproducible technique for induction of periodontitis in the mandible of Wistar rats using a modified ligation technique with an additional injection of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at LPPT Unit IV Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta. Subjects and Methods: Ten 2-month-old male adult Wistar rats were used as experimental subjects with an average weight of 150–200 g. Nonresorbable silk ligature wire (4/0) was used as ligatures and placed with an “8”-shaped knot technique. The ligatures were placed in between both central incisors of the mandible for 7 days with additional injections of A. actinomycetemcomitans on the 1st day. The procedure was performed under ketamine anesthesia. After 7 days, ligatures were removed and the animal subjects were euthanized with cervical dislocation method and samples of mandibles were preserved in formalin solution and processed histologically and radiographically. Results: Modified induction technique of periodontitis with ligatures and additional injection of A. actinomycetemcomitans showed significant clinical inflammation, periodontal ligament widening, attachment loss, and alveolar bone loss. Conclusions: We demonstrated clinical, radiographic, and histological evaluation from this modified induction technique and concluded that it has several advantages: shorter period of induction time with more significant clinical changes and advanced bone loss, simplifying the technique for induction of periodontitis.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Esthetic management of multiple gingival recession by Zucchelli's coronally advanced flap with bioabsorbable collagen membrane p. 41
Sachin Dhingra
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_35_19  
The importance of esthetics is increasing for the patients as well as for the dentist. Gingival recession is one of the most common causes of unesthetic appearance. Hence, it is important to maintain a balance between pink and white components. Various techniques have been used to cover gingival recession in the past. Coronally advanced flap (CAF) is most commonly performed among the free pedicle tissue grafts. This case report describes the esthetic treatment of multiple gingival recession by Zucchelli's CAF with bioabsorbable collagen membrane.
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A case of dental surgery intervention for a hemophilia A patient p. 45
Kazuma Harada, Hani Al-Shareef, Yosuke Shogen, Hirokazu Nakahara
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_36_19  
Hemophilia A is a genetic coagulation disorder associated with a deficiency of clotting factor VIII (FVIII). It can be inherited or acquired and have different levels of severity. The present case report describes a male patient with FVIII deficiency who underwent dental surgical treatment. The patient was a 70-year-old male with a prosthetic mechanical aortic valve who had undergone ascending aortic replacement surgery and coronary artery bypass surgery. He also had a history of cerebral infarction with right paraplegia. Therefore, he visited our hospital for surgical dental treatment. The patient underwent blood tests and imaging to assess the severity of hemophilia and the condition of the surgical area. The treatment plan for the day of surgery was to ensure that markers for bleeding tests would not be increased and prolongation of the partial thromboplastin time (PTT) would remain mild; accordingly, the patient was administered FVIII before the surgical treatment under local anesthesia. The blood examination revealed a mild prolonged PTT and slight changes in platelet count and FVIII level. There was no subsequent bleeding or complications at follow-up, and the wound had healed completely without abnormalities.
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Fabrication of custom scleral prosthesis for retinoblastoma p. 50
B Leela, BK SriAshwini, DB Nandeeshwar
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_2_19  
Cancer is always a frightening diagnosis, and when it affects children, the situation is over-whelming. Eye cancer in children, though rare, is the third-leading cancer of childhood. Retinoblastoma can be a particularly distressing form of cancer as it is potentially fatal and can result in loss of one or both eyes. Providing the patient with a cosmetically pleasing, custom scleral prosthesis is a palliative approach for the rehabilitation of a pediatric patient with retinoblastoma. Custom scleral prosthesis not only fulfills the esthetic and psychological demands but also stimulates bony orbital growth, thereby reaping long-term benefits of restoring facial symmetry and esthetics.
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Prosthodontic management of hypermobile ridge using modified window impression technique and liquid-supported denture p. 55
Siddharth Mehta, M Mohammed Ziauddeen, Pulkit Chandra, B Rohith, Abha Mehta
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_9_19  
Abused, inflamed, atrophic, and flabby ridges always pose a great challenge to a prosthodontist in the fabrication of complete dentures. Healthy underlying tissue is a prerequisite for a successful denture. In flabby ridges, due to the compressible nature of the tissues, the denture might lose stability very soon. Liquid-supported dentures may act as a viable option which provides a soft, resilient, and adaptable intaglio surface of the denture. It helps in the preservation of the residual ridge resorption by optimal distribution of the masticatory forces and gives adequate retention, stability, and support. This article describes a case report of prosthodontic management of a flabby ridge nonsurgically, with a modified window impression technique and a liquid supported maxillary denture for better patient acceptance and comfort.
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Pleomorphic adenoma of tongue: A common entity at unusual location p. 60
Shruti Sangwan, Sufian , Navpreet Kaur
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_32_19  
Salivary gland tumors constitute 3% of salivary glands lesions. The most common tumor of salivary glands is pleomorphic adenoma (PA) commonly affecting major salivary glands. PA involving minor salivary glands accounts for <3% of all head and neck tumors. Palate is the most common site, followed by upper lips. The tongue is an unusual site and there are only 29 reported cases in literature as per our knowledge. Herein, we report a rare case of 63-year-old male presenting with non-healing ulcer on the left lateral border of the tongue. A biopsy was done and material sent for histopathological examination. Histopathological examination of biopsy revealed PA. Smooth muscle actin and p63 immunohistochemistry showed myoepithelial cells. This case suggests that PA of the tongue should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lesions of the tongue.
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