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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-December 2020
Volume 10 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 65-125

Online since Tuesday, February 16, 2021

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MESSAGE FROM THE OFFICE OF THE BEAUIDEAL  

Message from the office of the Beauideal p. 65

DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_38_20  
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GUEST EDITORIAL Top

COVID-19 and digital health p. 66
KS Somashekhar
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_37_20  
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EDITORIAL Top

Editorial message p. 67
C Shubha
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_36_20  
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Strategies and modification of polyetheretherketone for prosthodontic driven implants p. 68
U Krishna Kumar, Sanjay Murgod
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_4_20  
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is regarded as one of the most potential materials for replacing current implant applications. To obtain good bone-implant interfaces, many modification methods have been developed to enable PEEK and PEEK-based composites from bioinert to bioactive. Among them, physical and chemical methods have aroused significant attention and been widely used to modify PEEK for dental implants. This review summarizes current modification techniques of PEEK for dental applications, which include composite strategies and surface-coating methods. The positive consequences of those modification methods will encourage continuing investigations and stimulate the wide range of applications of PEEK-based implants in prosthodontics.
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Povidone-iodine: “The first line of defense” with potential anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 efficacy p. 74
Nishant Negi, Vinay Kumar Bhardwaj, Deepak Sharma, Rajiv Sharma, Toufiq Asad, Abdul Shamal
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_24_20  
An outbreak of new coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2) (coronavirus disease-19), has assumed the proportion of global pandemic having affected more than 200 countries and territories. In the absence of any specific treatment, efficient disinfectant and antiseptic products are useful to help prevent the spread of infection. Povidone-iodine formulations are well known for their broad-spectrum antimicrobial action and a remarkable safety profile. They have shown in vitro virucidal activity against different coronaviruses. Till the time there is a concrete clinical evidence of efficacy of antiseptic agents against the current coronavirus, povidone-iodine formulations can be used widely as first choice antiseptics as well as for preventive and prophylactic management of SARS-CoV2 infection. This review highlights the importance of Povidone-Iodine formulations in health-care settings as broad-spectrum antiseptic, especially because of their potential virucidal activity against SARS-CoV2.
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Practicing prosthetic dentistry in the COVID era p. 79
Navdha Gupta, Pankaj Dhawan, Mansi Nautiyal
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_31_20  
The article entails an in-depth study on general and self-protection of dentists to be followed in the prosthodontic clinics and laboratories. A research was conducted using keywords such as “Covid-19,” “epidemiology,” “risk factors,” “guidelines for dentists,” “guidelines on infection control in prosthodontic department,” “dental unit water lines,” and “water quality in dental units” in the databases of PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, and textbooks on public health community dentistry between 1990 and 2020. Articles and texts without reliable source of publication were excluded, and articles focusing on the well-being of dentists along with sterilization norms during this pandemic time were only included. In the field of prosthodontics, the prosthodontists were constrained to curtail their scale of operations as dentists were always at a higher exposure of saliva and bodily fluids. The tasks/procedures exposing the prosthodontists to their patients' bodily fluids had to be curtailed to a larger extent, and they ought to be extra cautious while performing the procedures. The emphasis is not only on sterilization protocols which are to be strictly followed in the clinics but also on a personal level whereby the dentists too have to go an extra mile to safeguard themselves as well as their patients. There is a humongous fear psychosis prevalent in the mindsets of both patients and doctors owing to the fear factor arising out of the airborne infection.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with poor oral health outcomes among United States adults p. 86
Apexa B Patel, Dora Il'yasova, Ashli Owen-Smith
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_3_20  
Introduction: Oral health disparities remain a significant public health issue for United States (US) adults: 47.2% of US adults suffer from some form of periodontal diseases and 9% of US adults have advanced periodontal disease. Unfortunately, not much is known about the sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with these poor oral health outcomes. This study aims to examine the association between sociodemographic and clinical factors and poor oral health outcomes among US adults. Materials and Methods: Data from the 2013 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used in the analysis for the participants aged 30 years and older (n = 4813). Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between sociodemographic and clinical factors and poor oral health outcomes. All analyses were conducted in SAS 9.4 and weighted to account for complex survey sampling methods. Results: This study found that low socioeconomic status was negatively associated with periodontal diseases. Older age (ages 65 years and older), Hispanic and non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity and limited access to dental care were positively associated with periodontal diseases. Conclusion: Future policy-level interventions are needed to address oral health disparities among vulnerable populations.
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A randomized clinical trial of antimicrobial efficacy of photoactivated disinfection, conventional endodontic irrigation and their combination in primary endodontic infections p. 94
Rakesh Mittal, Monika Tandan, Varsha Jain
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_20_20  
Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial efficacy of photoactivated disinfection (PAD), conventional irrigation (CEI), and combination of both against primary endodontic infections in vivo. Methods: Active controlled and parallel design trial was registered with Clinical Trials Registry India under reference no. CTRI/2018/08/015478. Forty-eight qualified patients were randomly divided into three groups (n = 16 each) using the lottery method, Group-I: CEI, Group-II: PAD, Group-III: CEI and PAD. Access opening and working length were determined, and preinstrumentation sample (S1) was taken by inserting sterile paper point into the canal. Postinstrumentation sample (S2) was collected following biomechanical preparation and irrigation with respective interventions. Microbiological samples (S1, S2) were plated on brain heart infusion agar. Colony-forming units were counted using the classic bacterial counting method, and percentage bacterial reduction was determined. Statistical Analysis: Inter- and intra-group comparison was made using repeated measures of ANOVA. Post hoc Tukey analysis was done for pairwise comparison with P < 0.05. Results: In the intragroup comparison, statistically significant reduction was seen at S2 among all experimental groups. However, in intergroup comparison, mean bacterial reduction in Group III was significantly lower than the other groups. This difference was statistically significantly better between Group I and Group III; Group II, and Group III. However, no statistically significant difference was seen between Group I and Group II. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that a combination of CEI and PAD showed significantly better antimicrobial activity against primary endodontic infections and can be recommended as an adjunct to facilitate maximum root canal disinfection.
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Retrospective study of epidemiology and clinical profile of oral cavity cancers at a tertiary care center p. 102
TS Rahul, MV Tintu, Senthil Kumar
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_22_20  
Objective: A retrospective study of patients attended to the Rajiv Gandhi General Hospital, Madras Medical College, Chennai, during January 2013 to December 2016, was carried out to assess the epidemiology and the clinical profiles of oral cavity malignancy. Materials and methods: 794 patients who met the inclusion criteria of newly diagnosed patients with histopathologically confirmed oral cavity carcinoma, were taken for the retrospective study at Department of Medical Oncology. Outcome measures: The clinical profile, risk factors, status of presentation, staging and compliance with treatment were the outcome measures. Results & Discussion: The mean age of the study population was 53.04 years. Addiction to smoking was higher among all the male patients and the consumption of the tobacco was seen much more in the younger age group with decreasing tendency in the older age groups. Non-healing ulcer (83.2%) was the most common presenting complaint and the appearance of oral leukoplakia (29.9%) was more common in tobacco users and with increased frequency in the lower age group patients. The carcinoma tongue ant 2/3rd (42.2%) was the most common disease presentation, followed by buccal mucosa(25.5%), lower alveolus (15.7%), Floor of mouth (9%), lateral border of tongue (4.9%), lower and upper lip (2.26%) malignancies. 30 (3.77%) patients had instu lesion making stage 0 at presentation. Stage I 165(20.7%), stage II 150(18.9%), stage III 246(30.9%) stage IV 203(25.5%) and 9 patients showed distant metstasis at the time of presentation. Conclusion: Appearance of oral pre-malignat lesions were predominantly seen in younger adults especially those who are addicted to pan chewing. In the study population, there was a habit of keeping the pan contents in the oral cavity especially at sites such as bucco-gingival foldings and buccal mucosa are showing occurrence of site specific increase in pre-malignat lesions and cancers. The implementation of cost-effective policies to reduce alcohol use and tobacco use, such as increasing prices (through taxation), restricting marketing, and counter-advertising,could also help to prevent a large number of oral cavity cancers along with health education to reduce the global burden of disease.
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CASE REPORTS Top

A case report of modified removable partial denture design for the rehabilitation of partially edentulous arches with multiple exostoses p. 109
Ajay Jain, Soh Su Feng, Sridevi Ugrappa
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_9_20  
The presence of palatal and lingual tori complicates the rehabilitation of partially edentulous maxillary and mandibular arches with a removable partial denture, as a major connector in denture crosses the midline and joins the components on one side of the arch with another side. The present case report describes the modified design of major connectors used in maxillary and mandibular removable partial dentures for the management of Kennedy's Class 3 maxillary partially edentulous arch and Kennedy's Class 2 mandibular partially edentulous arches with multiple exostoses.
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An unusual case of intraoral actinomycosis: Case report and literature review p. 113
Hemant Kumar Sharma, Shivani Prashar
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_19_20  
Actinomycosis is an infrequent chronic suppurative granulomatous disease caused by commensal bacteria of Actinomyces species. It usually affects the orocervicofacial region and classically presents with chronic abscess or persistent discharging sinus tract formation along with “sulfur granules” and woody fibrosis. Bacteriological and histopathological examination confirming the presence of Actinomyces colonies is essential for diagnosis and treatment modalities to include long-term oral and intravenous antibiotics. We report a challenging case of a 38-year-old male who presented with pain, swelling, and numbness around the left upper jaw after undergoing dental extraction about 1 month back. No symptoms of discharging pus, sinus tract, or abscess formation or fibrosis were seen. Based on the clinical history and symptoms, a presumptive diagnosis of intraoral actinomycosis was made, but no organism could be cultured. Finally, surgical resection was done, and Actinomyces involving the first and second molar teeth of the upper left maxilla was confirmed on histopathology. Intraoral actinomycosis requires long-term antibiotic treatment, but in our patient, a newer treatment modality was attempted which yielded excellent results without any recurrence after 1 year.
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A novel technique for precise iris positioning while fabrication of custom made ocular prosthesis Highly accessed article p. 117
Amala Nancy, R Satheesh, Rekha Gupta, Shubhra Gill
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_23_20  
The prosthetic rehabilitation of ocular defects offers psychological benefit to the patients with congenital or acquired defects of eye. The most critical step involved in the construction of ocular prosthesis is its precise iris positioning. This case report introduces a simple novel approach for iris positioning in ocular prosthesis using facebow and in-office materials.
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Fibromyxoma in an elderly female: A case report p. 122
Paramjot Kaur, Himanta Bansal, Manali Kulkarni
DOI:10.4103/ijohs.ijohs_49_19  
Odontogenic fibromyxoma is a slow-growing, locally invasive, nonmetastasizing neoplasm found exclusively in the bones of the facial skeleton. Although benign, it is locally aggressive making it difficult to treat. It commonly occurs in the second and third decades, and the mandible is involved more commonly than the maxilla. The lesion often grows without symptoms and presents as a painless swelling. The radiographic features are variable, and the diagnosis is therefore not easy in many cases. This article presents a rare case of odontogenic fibromyxoma occurring in the posterior mandible of a 75-year-old female patient.
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